In a recent clinical experience, Leon encountered patients in their 70s who believed their frequent nighttime awakenings were symptoms of insomnia and were concerned about the potential link between insomnia and dementia. However, Leon reassured them that these brief awakenings were normal and not indicative of insomnia. Such awakenings are a natural part of sleep patterns, occurring between deep sleep cycles. As people age, sleep naturally becomes lighter and shorter, without adverse effects. True insomnia requires daytime impairments, such as fatigue, cognitive problems, mild depression, irritability, distress, or anxiety, in addition to nighttime symptoms.

The misconception regarding the relationship between sleep symptoms and dementia often begins with large surveys that establish a statistically significant connection between sleep issues and dementia. These studies primarily rely on self-reported sleep duration, with those reporting less than six hours a night showing a slightly elevated risk of dementia. However, these studies do not necessarily diagnose clinical insomnia and often lack context or an understanding of whether individuals are simply restricting their sleep.

Research on insomnia’s health risks tends to be inconsistent, with some studies finding a small increase in dementia risk associated with insomnia, while others do not establish a clear link. This lack of consistency contributes to a sense of alarm among the public, as media reports often focus on statistically significant but potentially clinically insignificant findings, amplifying fears.

Insomnia is sometimes associated with various physical health risks, including obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure. However, the meaningfulness and direct relationship of these links to insomnia remain subjects of debate. Leon’s research showed that sleep symptoms alone do not necessarily shorten life expectancy, but when daytime symptoms like fatigue, memory problems, and distress are included, there is a slight increase in the risk of premature death. It is challenging to determine whether this excess mortality can be attributed to undiagnosed underlying health conditions.

Instead of fixating on physical health dangers, the focus should shift toward mental health. Insomnia is more robustly linked to mental health problems, particularly depression. The daytime impairments caused by insomnia, such as fatigue, cognitive issues, and irritability, can significantly lower the quality of life and may lead to feelings of hopelessness and depression. Seeking help from a healthcare practitioner is essential for individuals experiencing these problems. The good news is that cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) is an effective, long-term, non-drug treatment with no side effects. Successful CBTi can also alleviate symptoms of depression and other mental distress.

What is unhelpful is the unnecessary fear generated by reports of severe physical health dangers associated with insomnia. Such fear is more likely to exacerbate insomnia rather than alleviate it. It is important to approach the topic of insomnia with a balanced perspective, considering both physical and mental health aspects.


The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as a health advice. We would ask you to consult a qualified professional or medical expert to gain additional knowledge before you choose to consume any product or perform any exercise.

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